How to implement Subresource Integrity (SRI)


Implementing Subresource Integrity

A little while ago a blog post by Frederik Braun came across my radar and I learned about something call Subresource integrity. You can read the excellent explanation by Braun on his website for more details or you can read his transcript of a talk he gave if you want a really thorough explanation of how it works, what it is, and why it's useful. For this blog post, I'm focused on the practical people who simply want to use SRI and advise a few things to be mindful of as you implement.

For those who don't want to read, what's SRI?

SRI is a way to make sure CDN or other third party assets such as javascript or CSS don't deface your site or do malicious things should said third party become compromised. You can imagine a situation where you include jQuery from cdnjs, but it's been compromised, so every few seconds it does a simple call to load facebook silently. Congratulations, the world has just DDoS-ed a website for you and you could have prevented it with SRI.

Getting to it, the key parts for SRI.

To implement SRI for your resource you need 2 things.

  1. The hash of your resource, using sha256, sha384, or sha512*
  2. The Base 64 encoding of your hash.

You can compute this yourself with open SSL as Braun indicates on his website

cat MYFILE | openssl dgst -sha256 -binary | openssl enc -base64 -A

or you can use this handy website to generate the HTML for a given file.

If you're only doing this for a few resources on your pages (jQuery, bootstrap, etc) then you're probably fine using one of these tools and adding in the HTML manually. If you're like me, and like to automate things then you can do a bit more work.

Automating SRI for your website, via Python

If you just want the script, it's here and you'll just need to configure it.

If I were any good with Node or understanding the finer nature of Harp I'd be able to integrate the integrity checks directly into the compile step of my website, but since I don't know how to do that I figure'd python would be a safe alternative. I chose python because it provides:

The gist of the script is simple, using a configuration for which files should have integrity checks added to them, walk an HTML folder and update each of the links with the appropriate intregity value. So, we need to:

  1. Load a configuration
  2. Compute integrity values for the configured files
  3. Walk and update each HTML file.

Loading a configuration

In python, loading a simple JSON configuration file couldn't be simpler:

import json
with open('sri.conf') as f:
    conf = json.load(f)

We'll be provided with a simple dictionary to use of whatever happens to be in sri.conf. In my case it's:

    "scripts" : [
        ["www/javascript/app.js", "/app.js"],
        ["www/javascript/jquery.min.1.9.1.js", "/jquery.min.1.9.1.js"]
    "links" : [
        ["www/css/style.css", "/style.css"],
        ["www/css/non-essentials.css", "/non-essentials.css"],
        ["www/css/politics.css", "/politics.css"]

The configuration is simple, I'll be handling both javascript script tags and CSS link tags. The items in the array are arrays of length 2, with the first element being the resource to validate, and the second being the script to look for. Since my website chooses one of my static hosts randomly I don't know the full domain to search for and simply look for a match at the end of a file, which means that if there were more than one app.js, this script would have some issues. Caveat aside, it's trivial to move on to the next step.

Computing integrity values for SRI in Python

It's simple to call hashlib.sha384() and update on a set of bytes to compute a hash in python:

import hashlib
sha = hashlib.sha384()
print sha.hexdigest()

But what's not entirely clear is whether you should use hexdigest or digest. If we only needed the sha value and not the base 64 encoded version as well, we'd probably prefer hexdigest since, according to the docs:

the digest is returned as a string of double length, containing only hexadecimal digits. This may be used to exchange the value safely in email or other non-binary environments.

But since we'll be passing it to base64.encodestring, we want to use digest which has a return value that is the raw hash and not a string encoding of it that would hash differently:

This is a string of digest_size bytes which may contain non-ASCII characters, including null bytes.

We're using the base64.encodestring method rather than b64encode or any of the other methods because, according to the Base64 docs:

The legacy interface provides for encoding and decoding to and from file-like objects as well as strings, but only using the Base64 standard alphabet.

The community for python is great, so I didn't have to expend too much effort in finding an example of hashing a file, and my only update was to use digest rather than hexdigest so I didn't have to convert from the hex version back to the raw for my base64 encoding.

import hashlib
def sha384OfFile(filepath):
    sha = hashlib.sha384()
    with open(filepath, 'rb') as f:
        while True:
            block =**10) # Magic number: one-megabyte blocks.
            if not block: break
        return sha.digest()

And to compute the base64 encoding and format the string into a valid integrity check for SRI:

def sriOfFile(filepath):
    sha = sha384OfFile(filepath)
    return 'sha384-' + encodestring(sha)[:-1] #drop newline added by b64

Note that we have to drop the last line because encodestring adds a newline as indicated by the documentation:

returns a string containing one or more lines of base64-encoded data always including an extra trailing newline ('\n').

Walking HTML files and adding SRI

Finally, the last thing we need to do is traverse a file system and open and edit each HTML file. Walking directory structures is fairly trivial in Python:

directory = '/tmp'
for root, directories, files in os.walk(directory):
    for filename in files:
        #Do stuff

To only deal with HTML files we simply check the filename:

if filename.endsWith(".html"):
    #Do stuff

So combining these two together we can construct a list of files that we need to update and edit:

def get_filepaths(directory):
    file_paths = []  # List which will store all of the full filepaths.

    for root, directories, files in os.walk(directory):
        for filename in files:
            if filename.endsWith(".html"):
                filepath = os.path.join(root, filename)
                file_paths.append(filepath)  # Add it to the list.

    return file_paths  # Self-explanatory.

Once we have the files, we parse them with BeautifulSoup and update the link and script tags with the configured values if they match our search pattern. Parsing a file is easy:

# f being a member of the get_filepaths return array
with open(f,'r') as openedFile:
        soup = BeautifulSoup(openedFile, "lxml")

Then, finding valid links to update can be done with the find_all method on the soup by providing our own filtering functions:

def isCssLink(tag):
    return tag.has_attr('rel') and tag.has_attr('href') and 'stylesheet' in tag['rel']

def isScriptLink(tag):
    return tag.has_attr('src') and tag.has_attr('type') and 'text/javascript' in tag['type']

links = soup.find_all(isCssLink)
scripts = soup.find_all(isScriptLink)

Once we have all the CSS links and javascript script tags, we can update them with soup's easy to understand syntax:

for link in links:
    link['property'] = 'value'

So going back to our configuration JSON, we know we have a pattern to search, and a file to hash. Pre-computing these will save us a lot of time and effort performance wise:

searchLinks = []
searchScripts = []

for linkArray in conf['links']:
    sri = sriOfFile(linkArray[0]) #linkArray[0] is the filepath
    searchLinks.append( [linkArray[1] , sri]) #linkArray[1] is the pattern to search

for scriptArray in conf['scripts']:
    sri = sriOfFile(scriptArray[0])
    searchScripts.append( [scriptArray[1] , sri])

With these pre-computed SRI's and patterns we can update our HTML soup:

for link in links:
    for searchLink in searchLinks:
        if link['href'].endswith(searchLink[0]):
            link['integrity'] = searchLink[1]
            link['crossorigin'] = 'anonymous'

And just like that we have an updated HTML file, and all that's left is to save it:

data = soup.prettify()

with open(f, 'w') as openedFile:

Things to note

With the script explained, there are a few things I'd like to make note of. While updating my own site to use SRI I managed to break it for a while. Namely because I forgot to add the crossorigin attribute to the tag. You absolutely need to include it, otherwise the asset will not load. And depending on your browser version, you might not get a clear message about it in the error console. But the main thing you need to remember is to add the crossorigin attribute. And of course, add CORS headers to whatever is serving the assets, most CDN do already.

The other thing to note is that your integrity value doesn't actually ensure anything unless it's in a secure context, i.e. if the asset is loaded via SSL. While the SRI spec has no requirement for SSL on the loaded source, it still advises developers that they're just wasting people's time if it's not:

Being in a Secure Context (e.g., a document delivered over HTTPS) is not necessary for the use of integrity validation. Because resource integrity is only an application level security tool, and it does not change the security state of the user agent, a Secure Context is unnecessary. However, if integrity is used in something other than a Secure Context (e.g., a document delivered over HTTP), authors should be aware that the integrity provides no security guarantees at all. For this reason, authors should only deliver integrity metadata in a Secure Context. See [Non-secure contexts remain non-secure] for more discussion.

And finally, SRI is still experimental and is supported by chrome and firefox in their latest/nightly versions. If you want to see if your browser is supported, you can open the page and scroll to the bottom.

Stay secure and I hope this helps!

*The list of supported hash algorithms is in S 3.5 of the SRI spec, which in turn references Content Security Policy Level 2, section 4.2.

Other Posts

comments powered by Disqus